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LATVIAN HEALTH TOURISM CLUSTER

CANCER

CANCER

We offer experienced specialists and state of the art technologies to cure oncology diseases.

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Breast cancer

Breast cancer is one of the most widespread oncologic pathologies in the world. Early detection of cancer plays a really important role in the improvement of treatment and reduction of death rate caused by breast cancer. There are two strategic routes that can be taken in order to boost figures of early cancer detection: to develop early diagnostics and perform screening.

Diagnostics of mammary glands:

  • palpation or clinical examination of breast using touch;
  • radiological or image diagnostics:

– mammography, tomosynthesis;

– ultrasound;

– magnetic resonance;

  • histological examination – the diagnosis of breast cancer is always made by performing biopsy under the guidance of ultrasound or stereotactic (mammography) examination.
  • PET/CT examination – the whole body is checked and precise information about the distribution of illness in the body and malignant transformation in the bones, tissues and organs is provided. In case of breast cancer, PET/CT is especially advised in stages IIIa and IIIb, as well as to diagnose metastases, to determine the effectiveness of therapy and to perform post-therapy monitoring.

Treatment of breast cancer

Treatment of breast cancer must be performed in specialised centres or departments where therapy is ensured by a team of multidisciplinary breast cancer specialists: surgeon, radiation therapist, oncologist chemotherapist, radiation diagnostician and pathologist (histologist) which specialise specifically in breast cancer diagnostics and treatment. This multidisciplinary team can also include a plastic surgeon, psychologist, physiotherapist, geneticist and nurses that specialise in the field of breast diseases.

When diagnosis of breast cancer is clinically and radiologically established and morphologically confirmed, the treatment is normally devised by a multidisciplinary council. When every case is evaluated by such council, the chances of successful treatment increase.

Surgical treatment comprises of:

  • removal of tumour. Normally it means sectorial resection of the mammary gland (one sector of the breast is operated) or mastectomy, that is removal of the breast;
  • tissue transfer to reduce or cover the defect. Unfortunately, tissue transfer and good cosmetic effect is not always possible;
  • lymph node surgery. Sentinel lymph nodes and sometimes, when clinical situation requires it, all armpit lymph nodes are removed from the armpit.

Removal of tumour is the simplest, yet at the same time, fundamentally important stage of breast surgery. As oncology surgery developed, mastectomy more often is replaced by breast preserving operation.

Collaboration between oncology surgeons and plastic surgeons becomes much closer. It also allows breast surgeons during operations to reconstruct the breast using silicone implants, to transfer levers freely from another anatomic region to cover defects left after oncology operation.  Breast reconstruction can be performed right after oncology operation (single-stage operation), as well as later (delayed reconstruction), when mammary glands are reconstructed after the completion of systemic (chemotherapy) and/ or local (radiation) therapy.

After plastic and reconstructive surgery joined operative breast surgery, the boundary between oncology stage and aesthetic stage reduced. Current breast cancer surgery balances carefully between oncology and aesthetic principles.

It is possible to achieve a visually perfect aesthetic result after implant surgeries using paramedical treatments. Sometimes, after mastectomy operations, when the breast gland is removed due to a malignant tumour, a breast prosthetic implant is inserted and a non-aesthetic scar remains around the areola which can and should be masked following the areola or the surrounding tissues. If the breast areola is missing, it can be reconstructed using 3D drawing.
Breast cancer combined treatment often includes radiation therapy. Its side effect could be partial alopecia (hair loss). In this case micro pigmentation is a great solution to this problem.

1401

Melanoma

For many years skin cancer has been ranked number one among all other types of oncology diseases.  

Melanoma is the most dangerous form of skin cancer. It develops from cells called melanocytes in which pigment melanin is formed. Melanoma looks like a birthmark which grows and changes. It could develop from an existing birthmark, as well as appear on unaffected skin anywhere on the body.

  • birthmark’s shape has to be symmetrical with similar borders, it’s not a good sign when one side is well-defined, but the other isn’t clearly visible;
  • benign mark has normally one or two colours. If it has more than two colours, such birthmark must be shown to a specialist;
  • you should pay attention to birthmarks that increase in their diameter by several millimetres in a couple of months;
  • the surface of birthmarks has to be smooth. If it starts to change (when it starts to flake, wet or bleed), you should immediately see a dermatologist.

Melanoma diagnostic methods:

  • Digital dermoscopy MoleMax – birthmarks and skin outer surfaces are examined using special equipment which combines special lighting and magnification, and comprises of a unified birthmark mapping system.
  • SIAscopy – each formation is examined using a computer and a laser scanner to detect its superficial pigment, deep pigment, as well as blood supply in the tissues and condition of skin connective tissues. This allows the specialists to determine how deep the formation is.
  • Histological examination of tissues – indicates if a birthmark is benign or malignant.
  • Optical and digital dermoscopy detects the nature of birthmark’s and other pigmented and non-pigmented skin formations. It allows the specialists to determine whether the skin formation is benign or malignant and select the most suitable method to eliminate the skin alteration. 
  • PET/CT examination – the whole body is checked gaining precise information about the distribution of illness in the body and about malignant transformations in bones, tissues and organs. PET/CT is the most efficient and precise diagnostic method for the patients with high risk of metastases, as well as for detecting relapse phase and early diagnosis of tumour recurrence. Development of melanoma can lead to metastases in the brain, lungs and liver, and its timely detection is extremely important.

Treatment of melanoma:

  • Stradins Hospital Oncology Clinic which has been operating for 60 years has a newly renovated block where the Oncology Clinic with its new equipment is based. It has a high-power linear accelerator with a multileaf collimator and real time image acquisition system. Thus, the hospital together with the outpatient unit and the day-care unit, as well as radiotherapy is located in one place.
  • Sigulda Stereotactic Radiosurgery Centre uses unique high precision equipment specially designed for radiosurgery called Cyber knife M6 which helps to fight cancer, benign tumours and other illnesses that can be cured using radiosurgery or radiotherapy. Cyber knife is particularly efficient in treating tumours that are located in hard-to-reach places, for example, in the brain and medulla, on the moving parts of the body etc.
  • In turn, Global Virotherapy Cancer Clinic provides holistic treatment for patients, during which the clinic’s patients receive high quality medical services and access to a wide range of specialists – oncologist, immunologist, physiotherapist, psychotherapist, arts therapist, acupuncture specialist, who offer consultations and also perform medical examinations.    Oncolytic virotherapy is a form of cancer treatment using special medical agent containing viruses capable of detecting and destroying cells of malignant tumour in the human body. This medical agent is inserted in the body using intramuscular injection. Virotherapy normally is performed in the outpatient facility following an individually designed procedure and in accordance with the usage guidelines. The treatment on average lasts up to 3 years, during which test results and patient’s condition are monitored. 

If malignant tumour is discovered in due time, it is possible to excise it and fully cure the patient, however, if it has spread into the organs – lungs, kidneys, brain or bones, treatment becomes complicated and chances of full recovery become very small.

1412

Ovarian cancer, cervical cancer

Oncology diseases are normally related to aging, whereas some diseases, such as cervical cancer, can also arise in young girls.

Among gynecological oncology diseases endometrial cancer is one of the prognostic benign tumors, since symptoms show up at a very early stage in the form of bleeding from genitals. All women after the age of 40 must undergo a check-up if there are any alterations to the regular menstrual cycle, and in all cases women have to have a check-up if there are any discharges during menopause. During menopause discharges don’t always have to be blood-stained – these can be light pink or completely clear discharges from genitals.

Patients are more protected against cervical cancer when they undergo cervical screenings every three years. This frequency of screenings is completely sufficient. The test results are a way to protect patients from the development of cervical cancer. There shouldn’t be any cases of cervical cancer in a normal conscious society, since this disease has a long development period (10-15 years) which gives doctors a chance to detect it at the early stages of epithelium damage when CIN I, CIN II or CIN III are identified.

Blood-tinged discharges from genitals after sexual intercourse is a very typical symptom of cervical cancer.

With ovarian cancer it is more complicated, for there is still no such examination that a woman could undergo as a preventive measure and thus protect herself from ovarian cancer. The only recommendations that exist are for the patients with a proven mutation in one of the BRCA genes.

Throughout the history ovarian cancer used to be called “the silent killer”, because the first symptoms of ovarian cancer are extremely non-specific and normally neither patient nor primary care specialist suspects the presence of this dangerous disease. Normally there are complaints about increased belly size, different kinds of eating disorders, epigastric fullness, which become more pronounced over time. Pain is not a very typical sign of ovarian cancer. The main complaints are about a buildup of fluid in the abdominal cavity.

Diagnostic methods:

  • Gynaecological ultrasound allows us to identify formations in the ovarian region. It allows the specialists to understand whether they are potentially malignant and whether the formations bear oncologic danger. Ultrasound also gives an opportunity to judge the condition of endometrium. In case of endometrial diseases, the uterine cavity will be increased in size.
  • In case of cervical cancer ordinary examinations are really informative – these are gynecological check-ups with mirrors and, when necessary, colposcopy with cervical electro excision or just a small biopsy if the formation is large and only morphological confirmation is needed.
  • Computer tomography of abdominal organs and small pelvis is really informative for the evaluation of disease distribution. It allows the doctors to judge the distribution of tumor in the abdominal cavity and the lymph nodes.
  • On some occasions a magnetic resonance is necessary.
  • On even fewer occasions a positron emission tomography (PET/CT) is required. This examination is particularly efficient in cases of recurrence of illness when other methods are not that precise. PET/CT reflects increased metabolism which is typical for malignant processes. PET/CT is used to check the whole body, gaining precise information about the distribution of illness in the body and about malignant transformations in bones, tissues and organs. PET/CT is particularly suitable for early relapse diagnosis, because it allows for metastases to be detected at a very early stage when an elevated tumor marker is the only sign of a possible recurrence of tumor.

Treatment of gynecological oncology diseases:

  • In “Onkoklīnika” we have experienced specialists working in the field of gynecological oncology diseases. The clinic employs the only specialists in Latvia who have a scientific degree in this field, thus they use a scientifically sound approach in examination and treatment.
  • We collaborate with such medical centers as Nuclear Medicine Clinic of RSU, P. Stradins Oncology Clinic and Sigulda Stereotactic Surgery Centre.

Jurmala city council
Jomas Street 1/5,
Jurmala, LV - 2015
Phone.: +371 67147905
Fax: +371 67147901
e-mail: guntau@jpd.gov.lv

Executive director Gunta Ušpele
guntau@jpd.gov.lv



Registration details:
VAT Nr. LV40008131781
Bank: A/S Swedbank
SWIFT code: HABALV22
Bank Account: LV33HABA0551023531429

 

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